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Details of Indirect TCP Segments in Mobile transport Layer

Dec, 12 2020, 04:15 pm [IST]
Details of Indirect TCP Segments in Mobile transport Layer

Indirect TCP

Two competing insights conveyed to the Development of indirect TCP. One is that TCP plays poorly together with wireless links, the other is that TCP the fixed network can be modified. Therefore, I-TCP segments a TCP connection into a fixed part and a wireless part.

Among the fixed computer and the access point, standard TCP is utilized. Thus, no computer on the internet knows any changes to TCP. Instead of the mobile host, now the access points are minutes the standard TCP connection, working as a p proxy. This means that our access point is now perceived as the mobile host for the fixed host and as the fixed host for the mobile host.

Among the access point and the mobile host, a special TCP, adapted to wireless links, is used. However, modifying TCP for the wireless link is not a necessity. Even an eternal TCP can profit from the much shorter round trip time, thus starting transmission much quicker. The good place for segmenting the connection between the mobile host and correspondent host is at the foreign agent of mobile IP.

The foreign agent restrains the mobility of the mobile host anyhow and can also have over the link to the next foreign agent when the mobile host goes on. However, one and also guess separating the TCP connections at a Special server. The correspondent host in the fixed network does not mention the wireless link or the segmentation of the link. The foreign agent plays as a proxy and relays all data in both ways. If the correspondent host sends a packet, then the foreign agent acknowledges this packet. Then the foreign agent tries to forward the packet to the mobile host.

If the mobile host received the packet, it acknowledges the packet. However, this acknowledgment is only you should by the foreign agent. If a packet is dropped on the wireless connection due to a transmission error, the retransmit this packet locally to keep reliable data transport.

Likewise, if the mobile host sends a packet, the foreign agent acknowledges this packet and attempts to forward it to the correspondent host. If the packet is dropped on the wireless connections, the mobile hosts can mark this much quicker due to the lower round trip time and can directly retransmit the packet. Packet loss in the wired network is now managed by the foreign agent.

Several advantages come with I-TCP:

  • Indirect TCP does not need any modifications in the TCP protocol as used by the hosts in the fixed network or other hosts that do not apply this Optimisation. So, all current optimizations or TCP still work between the foreign agent and the correspondent host.
  • Due to the strict partitioning into the connections, transformation errors on the wireless link, that is, lost packets, cannot propagate into the fixed network. Now only packets in sequence without gaps leave the foreign agent.
  • It is evermore threatening to offer new mechanisms into a large network such as the internet without accurately knowing their behavior. However, new mechanisms are required to enhance TCP performance, but with indirect TCP the only between the mobile host and the foreign agent. Different solutions can be examined or used at the same time without exposing the stability of the internet. Furthermore, the Optimisation of these new mechanisms is very simple because they only include one single hop.
  • The slight delay between the mobile host and foreign agent can be defined and it is autonomous of other traffic streams. Therefore, an optimized TCP can use well-defined timeouts to ensure retransmission as fast as possible. Even standard TCP gains from this short round trip time, thus overcoming faster from packet loss.
  • Partitioning into two connections also allows the use of a different transport layer protocol between the foreign agent and the mobile host or the use of compressed headers etc. The foreign agent can now act as a gateway to translate between the different protocols.

But the idea of segmentation in indirect TCP also comes with some disadvantages:

  • The loss after the end-to-end semantics of TCP might cause problems if the foreign agent partitioning the TCP connection crashes. If a sender receives an acknowledgment now only means that the foreign agent receives the packet. The correspondent node may also crash applications running on the correspondent node assuming a reliable end to end delivery.
  • In practical use, an increased handover latency maybe e much more problematic. All packets sent by the correspondent host are buffered by the foreign agent besides forwarding them to the mobile host. The foreign agent removes a packet from the buffer as soon as the appropriate acknowledgment arrives.
  • The foreign agent must be a trusted entity because the TCP connections end at this point. If users apply end to end encryption, the foreign agent has to be integrated into all security mechanisms.

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